What health issues or conditions affect women differently than men?

Some health issues that are common to both men and women affect women differently. Although the symptoms may be similar, the effects of the condition and the care necessary can differ significantly for women. In addition, some of these conditions might affect women primarily or more severely than men. For example, U.S women are at higher risk for breast cancer than men.2

Certain health issues and their effects on women are listed below.

Alcohol abuse

Millions of women abuse alcohol, putting their health, safety, and general well-being at risk. While men are more likely to become dependent on or addicted to alcohol than women are throughout their lifetime, the health effects of alcohol abuse and alcoholism (when someone shows signs of addiction to alcohol) are more serious in women. These health effects include an increased risk for breast cancer, heart disease, and fetal alcohol syndrome, in which infants born to mothers who drank during pregnancy suffer brain damage and learning difficulties.

Heart disease

Heart disease is the leading cause of death for women in some countries. Although heart disease is also the leading cause of death for men, women are more likely to die following a heart attack than men are. In addition, women are more likely than men are to experience delays in emergency care and to have treatment to control their cholesterol levels.

Mental health

Women are more likely to show signs of depression and anxiety than men are. Depression is the most common women's mental health problem, and more women than men are diagnosed with depression each year.


Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It causes joint pain, stiffness, and swelling. The condition affects millions of people and seems to affect more women than men.

Sexually transmitted diseases/sexually transmitted infections (STDs/STIs)

The effect of STDs/STIs on women can be more serious than on men. Leaving STDs/STIs untreated can cause infertility in women. STDs/STIs often go untreated in women because symptoms are less obvious than in men or are more likely to be confused with another less serious condition, such as a yeast infection.


According to a recent survey, stress is on the rise for women. For example, almost 50% of all women survey reported that their stress had increased over the past 5 years, compared to 39% of the men. Stress also has unique effects on women. A recent NICHD study found that stress might reduce a woman's chance of becoming pregnant.


More women than men suffer a stroke each year. Although many of the risk factors for stroke are the same for men and women, including a family history of stroke, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol, some risk factors are unique to women. These include:

  • Taking birth control pills
  • Being pregnant
  • Using hormone replacement therapy, a combined hormone therapy of progestin and estrogen designed to relieve menopausal symptoms
  • Having frequent migraine headaches
  • Having a thick waist (larger than 35.2 inches), particularly if post-menopausal, and high triglyceride (blood fat) levels

Urinary tract health

Women are more likely than men are to experience urinary tract problems. For example, urinary incontinence affects twice as many women as men, due to the way the female urinary tract is structured.